Scientific Tree invites all the Plant and Molecular biologists across the nations to submit their Abstracts before the deadline ends. Kindly submit your abstract. There are altogether 24 sessions on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology . Choose your calling and please submit your abstract relevant to the conference or session
The structure of the nanomaterials is classified by their dimensions. The zero-dimensional nanostructures are nanoparticles. The one-dimensional nanostructures are whiskers, fibers or fibrils, nanowires and nanorods. In many cases, nanocables and nanotubes are considered one-dimensional structures. Thin films are considered as two-dimensional nanostructures. Colloids bearing complex shapes have three-dimensional nanostructures. Nanomaterials are the miniaturization of materials or particles. They often require very different production approaches. There are several processes to create various sizes of nanomaterials classified as "top-down" and "bottom-up". Nanoscale in one dimension thin films, layers and surfaces one-dimensional nanomaterials such as thin films and engineered surfaces have been developed and used for decades in fields such as electronic device manufacture, chemistry and engineering. The most important example of this new class of materials is graphene.
Nanoparticles can be synthesized by both top-down or bottom-up approaches. Two well-known top-down approaches are milling or attrition and thermal cycling. Attrition produces nanoparticles of a wide range of diameter ranging from 20 nm to several hundred nanometers. The shape of the particles varies as well. They may contain impurities from the milling medium. The nanoparticles made by this process are usually used in the fabrication of nanocomposites and bulk materials having nano grains where perfections in size and shape, and presence of impurities do not matter significantly. This session discusses more about Nanomaterials Synthesis.
Nanomaterials manufacturing techniques uses milling processes to crush microparticles. This approach is applied in producing metallic and ceramic nanomaterials. For metallic nanoparticles for example, traditional source materials such as metal oxides are pulverized using high-energy ball mills. Such mills are equipped with grinding media composed of wolfram carbide or steel. Milling involves thermal stress and is energy intensive. Lengthier processing can potentially abrade the grinding media contaminating the particles. Purely mechanical milling can be accompanied by reactive milling like chemical or chemo-physical reaction accompanies the milling process. Compared to the chemo-physical production processes, using mills to crush particles yields product powders with a relatively broad particle-size ranges. This session discusses more about nanomaterials manufacturing techniques.
Nanophotonics is known as nano-optics. It uses light in nanoscale projects. This field is associated with some specific breakthroughs in using light in new technologies which include silicon-based semiconductors, where nanophotonics improve speed and performance. Nanophotonics involves silicon chips that use light instead of or in addition to the types of traditional electrical signals common to semiconductor design. The nanophotonics concept further contributes to a more general category of nanotechnology that is revolutionizing how some of the tiniest projects are treated by the research and development departments of various fields. Companies like IBM have pioneered advancements in a chip that uses photo detectors and emitted light to send signals in an integrated circuit environment. This session further discusses more about nanophotonics and its advancements in its research.
Appliances of nanomaterials are used in a variety of industries and consumer products. Nanomaterials and novel engineered nanotechnology offer great potential to improving the quality of life through using nanomaterial appliances in products and items that are used in our day-to-day life. To realise the full potential of nanomaterial products it is vital to understand the unique properties of these materials and to address potential safety or risk concerns for human health and the environment. Our extensive nanomaterials and nanotechnology capabilities include pre-clinical study design, regulatory affairs and liaison, toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment. We can help you to address key issues such as whether the properties that renders nanomaterials unique in size, relative surface area, chemistry and functionality are associated with unanticipated biological consequences and toxicity. This session further discusses about nanomaterial appliances.
Nanomechanics and Nano-satellites complement each other in formulating solutions for 21st century requirements. The nano-satellite (~ 10 kg) and micro-satellite (10 to 100 kg) constellations have important applications in both earth and space sciences. If the constellations include a variety of basic versatile instruments such as UV, VIS and IR hyperspectral spectrometers, then virtual platforms for different applications can be formed in space on the fly; and disassembled later for other uses or to test other scientific hypotheses. Applications include weather prediction, radiative or reflected energy measurements for global change studies, hazard warning and monitoring systems like fires, volcanoes, hurricanes, etc., and in-situ measurements of earth's magnetic field. For a wide range of applications, nano-and micro-satellite technology further the way NASA explores not only the earth, but the solar system and beyond. This session further discusses more about Nanomechanics and Nano-satellites.
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometre 10-9 metres. A nanorobot is a machine that can build and manipulate things precisely at an atomic level. A robot that can pluck, pick and place atoms like a kid plays with LEGO bricks. Nanorobots are typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometres and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. As no artificial non-biological nanorobots have so far been created they remain a hypothetical concept at this time. Macroscale robots or microrobots which can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots. This session discusses more about developments in nanorobotics engineering.
Nanocomposites are composites in which one of the phases shows dimensions in the nanometre range (1 nm = 10-9 m)1. Nanocomposite materials have emerged as suitable alternatives to overcome limitations of microcomposites and monolithics, while posing preparation challenges related to the control of elemental composition and stoichiometry in the nanocluster phase. They are reported to be the materials of 21st century in the view of possessing design uniqueness and property combinations that are not found in conventional composites. With an estimated annual growth rate of about 25% and the fastest demand to be in engineering plastics and elastomers their potential is felt in several areas ranging from packaging to biomedical applications. Applications of nanocomposites offer new technology and business opportunities for several sectors of the aerospace, automotive, electronics and biotechnology industries. This session discusses the use of natural materials such as clay based minerals chrysotile and lignocellulosic fibers.
Analysis of Nanomaterials measures the size of nanoparticle, morphology, dispersion, uniformity, optical and physical properties, and chemical composition. Nanotechnology research seeks to design and manufacture small particles, then incorporate these nanoparticles into liquid or solid carrier matrices. Nano-material research help understand the use of inorganic fillers for the toughening of plastics, the incorporation of conductive particulates such as carbon nano-tubes to produce antistatic or electrically conductive composites, and the use of nano-clays to improve the barrier properties of films or coatings, among many other applications. A nano-particle is smaller than about 0.1 microns. Materials with nanometre-scale size are increasingly utilised in technology and consumer product development due to their unique properties. This session further discusses more about analysis of nanomaterials.
A carbon nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the nanometer scale. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter or about 10,000 times smaller than a human hair. Carbon Nanotubes are unique because the bonding between the atoms is very strong and the tubes can have extreme aspect ratios. A carbon nanotube can be as thin as a few nanometers yet are as long as hundreds of microns. Carbon nanotubes have many structures, differing in length, thickness, and number of layers. The characteristics of nanotubes can be different depending on how the graphene sheet has rolled up to form the tube causing it to act either metallic or as a semiconductor. This session discusses more about carbon nanotubes and its advantages.
Nano Biomedical deals with medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices to nanoelectronic biosensors; and as well possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures. Therefore nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles. Nano biomedical seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. This session discusses the new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry which includes advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging.
The Nanostructures and Nanofabrication deal with the application and fabrication of devices using the foundations of quantum mechanics. It focuses on superconductive devices and materials applied single-photon detection and quantum computing; nanofabrication methods; and applications of nanofabrication to energy systems. Superconductive devices are among the most readily engineered examples of devices exhibiting quantum-mechanical effects. Quantum-mechanical effects are primarily observable at microscopic length scale. Developing and implementing novel methods of nanofabrication is a must. This session discusses multi-disciplinary approaches, borrowing techniques from physics, electrical-engineering, computer science, chemistry, and materials science.
Nano Magnetic Materials are a class of nanoparticle that can be manipulated using magnetic fields. Such particles consist of two components such as a magnetic material, iron, nickel and cobalt, and a chemical component that has functionality. The dynamic development of nano magnetic materials depends increasingly on the development of materials engineering, which seeks non-conventional materials when it comes to its physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The magnetic nanoparticles have been the focus of much research recently because they possess attractive properties which could see potential use in catalysis including nanomaterial-based catalysts, biomedicine. This session discusses more about nano magnetic materials and its applications in the fields of biomedicine, molecular biology, biochemistry, diagnosis, catalysis, and various other industrial applications are being researched.
Colloidal Nano Materials deals with large-scale colloidal syntheses of various nanomaterials which vary from noble metals to metal oxides and chalcogenides. One-batch syntheses are divided into heat-up and hot-injection methods. Continuous syntheses are represented by tubular and rotating disc reactors. These applications have encompassed fields as disparate as medicine, biology, energy conversion and storage, catalysis, sensing, nanocomposite engineering, cosmetics, to cite the most popular ones. For a new technology to be pervasive and disruptive, the costs associated to the fabrication, while at the same time the material quality and the reproducibility of the various processes must keep improving. This session discusses the growing concern how nanomaterials pose threats to the environment and what are the remedial measures to be adopted in this regard.
Hybrid nanomaterials are unique conjugates of organic/inorganic structures. Multifunctional hybrid materials are highly attractive in many applications. In order to achieve these multifunctions it is essential to control the compatibility between nanoparticles and the host polymer matrix. Synthesis of organically modified nanoparticles in supercritical water has clear advantages over conventional functionalisation of nanoparticles. Synthesis, characterization, and applications present the basic principles underlying the synthesis and fabrication of nanohybrids, their benefits, self-assembly and fabrication, and applications. This session discusses recent developments pertaining to the synthesis, characterizations, and applications of hybrid nanomaterials.
Nanomaterials Regulations and Safety measures are a must in view of the fact that nanotechnology is an emerging field; and many of the hazardous effects are not completely understood with many nanoparticles. These materials are relatively new; they are to be considered toxic and handled cautiously a precaution principle as stated by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) until adequate amount of data on the hazards of these nanomaterials has been collected for health and environment safety information. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides guidance on what parameters should be used for reporting the safety testing of nanomaterials. This session discusses more such regulations and safety measures for nanomaterials.
Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology deal with applications of nanotechnology to achieve breakthroughs in healthcare including the risks and impact on human body and environment. Advance developments in nanomedicine and nano toxicology have led to the development of the new field of nanomedicine which includes many applications of nanomaterials and nanodevices for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The same unique physical and chemical properties that make nanomaterials so attractive may be associated with their potentially calamitous effects on cells and tissues. These observations on differences in recognition of nanoparticles by macrophages have important implications in the relationship between the potentially toxic health effects of nanomaterials and their applications in the field of nanomedicine. This session discusses in vivo and in vitro diagnostics to therapy including targeted delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and regenerative medicine; interface between nanomaterials such as surfaces, particles.
Molecular Nanotechnology is used to design complex structures through mechanosynthesis process, in order to obtain the correct atomic specifications. In this technology complex products are built using nanomachines. The whole process of molecular nanotechnology would include the combination of physical theories with chemical demonstrations and other nanotechnologies. DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. In this field, nucleic acids are used as non-biological engineering materials for nanotechnology rather than as the carriers of genetic information in living cells. The field is beginning to be used as a tool to solve basic science problems in structural biology and biophysics, including applications in X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins to determine structures. Potential applications in molecular scale electronics and nanomedicine are also being investigated. This session discusses more about the advance developments in Molecular Nanotechnology & DNA Nanotechnology.
Nano Pharmaceutical Chemistry is the combination of chemistry and nanoscience related to pharmaceuticals. Nanochemistry is associated with synthesis of building blocks which are dependent on size, surface, shape and defect properties. Nanochemistry is being used in chemical, materials and physical science as well as engineering, biological and medical applications. Nanochemistry and other nanoscience fields have the same core concepts but the usages of those concepts are different. Several chemical modifications on nanometer scaled structures, approves effects of being size dependent. Nano-construct synthesis is dependent on how the surface, size and shape will lead to self-assembly of the building blocks into the functional structures. This session discusses more on developments in nano pharmaceutical chemistry.
Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture and food industry. Nanotechnology in Agri-food focuses on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology boosts agricultural production, and its applications include nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement through genetic manipulation of plants. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. This session discusses the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers.
Industrial Nanotechnology is impacting the field of consumer goods. Several products such as novel functions ranging from easy-to-clean to scratch-resistant have nanomaterial products. Other products having nanomaterials are lighter car bumpers, stain repellant clothing, radiation resistant sunscreen, stronger synthetic bones, lightweight cell phone screens, longer shelf-life glass packaging for drinks, and durable sports balls, cosmetics, electronics etc are al made of using nanomaterials. Nanotechnology is predicted to be a main driver of technology and business in this century and holds the promise of higher performance materials, intelligent systems and new production methods with significant impact for all aspects of society. Tissue engineering is the connecting discipline between engineering materials science, medicine and biology. In typical tissue engineering cells are seeded on biomimicked scaffold providing adhesive surfaces, then cells deposit their own protein to make them more biocompatible. This session discusses more about Industrial Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Tissue Engineering.
Ceramic and Glass Materials are inorganic, nonmetallic materials consisting of metallic and nonmetallic elements bonded primarily with ionic and covalent bonds. These high strength bonds give rise to the special characteristics of these materials. They occupy a unique place in the spectrum of engineered materials offering many desirable alternatives to the metals and polymers in common usage. There are wide variations in the properties of ceramics and glasses due primarily to differences in bonding and wide variations in chemical composition. The characteristics of these ceramics and glass materials are low to moderate density compared to metals, high modulus of elasticity (stiffness), good strength retention at elevated temperatures, dimensional stability, high compressive strength, low to moderate tensile and shear strength, high hardness, corrosion and oxidation resistant, wide range of thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, brittle, low impact strength, sensitive to thermal shock. This session discusses more about the developments in ceramics and glass materials.
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) play a key role in many important areas like transportation, communication, automated manufacturing, environmental monitoring, healthcare, defense systems, and a wide range of consumer products. MEMS are inherently small thus offering attractive characteristics such as reduced size, weight, and power dissipation and improved speed and precision compared to their macroscopic counterparts. Microfabrication provides tools for batch processing and miniaturization of electromechanical devices and systems into a dimensional scale. IC fabrication technology scales toward deep sub-micron and nano-meter feature sizes or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Nano-scale mechanical devices and systems integrated with nanoelectronics will open a vast number of new exploratory research areas in science and engineering. This session discusses more about MEMS and NEMS and its applications.
Nanosponges are known as novel class of drug delivery system. Effective targeted drug delivery systems have been a dream for a long time. The invention of nanosponges has become a significant step towards realizing this dream. Nanosponges are tiny sponges with a size of about a virus, which can be filled with a wide variety of drugs. These tiny sponges can circulate around the body until they encounter the specific target site and stick on the surface and begin to release the drug in a controlled and predictable manner. Because the drug can be released at the specific target site instead of circulating throughout the body it will be more effective for a particular given dosage. Another important character of these sponges is their aqueous solubility; this allows the use of these systems effectively for drugs with poor solubility. This session discusses the latest developments in its research on the usage and applicability of nanosponges.